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dc.creatorCampbell, Elizabeth
dc.creatorHasan, Md. Tanvir
dc.creatorPho, Christine
dc.creatorCallaghan, K.
dc.creatorAkkaraju, Giridhar R.
dc.creatorNaumov, Anton V.
dc.description.abstractGraphene oxide (GO), the most common derivative of graphene, is an exceptional nanomaterial that possesses multiple physical properties critical for biomedical applications. GO exhibits pH-dependent fluorescence emission in the visible/near-infrared, providing a possibility of molecular imaging and pH-sensing. It is also water soluble and has a substantial platform for functionalization, allowing for the delivery of multiple therapeutics. GO physical properties are modified to enhance cellular internalization, producing fluorescent nanoflakes with low (<15%) cytotoxicity at the imaging concentrations of 15 µg/mL. As a result, at lower flake sizes GO rapidly internalizes into HeLa cells with the following 70% fluorescence based clearance at 24 h, assessed by its characteristic emission in red/near-IR. pH-dependence of GO emission is utilized to provide the sensing of acidic extracellular environments of cancer cells. The results demonstrate diminishing green/red (550/630 nm) fluorescence intensity ratios for HeLa and MCF-7 cancer cells in comparison to HEK-293 healthy cells suggesting a potential use of GO as a non-invasive optical sensor for cancer microenvironments. The results of this work demonstrate the potential of GO as a novel multifunctional platform for therapeutic delivery, biological imaging and cancer sensing.en_US
dc.publisherNature Publishing Group
dc.sourceScientific Reports
dc.subjectDrug deliveryen_US
dc.subjectImaging techniques and agentsen_US
dc.subjectNanotechnology in canceren_US
dc.titleGraphene Oxide as a Multifunctional Platform for Intracellular Delivery, Imaging, and Cancer Sensing
dc.rights.holderCampbell et al.
dc.rights.licenseCC BY 4.0
local.collegeCollege of Science and Engineering
local.departmentPhysics and Astronomy
local.personsCampbell, Hasan, Pho, Naumov (PHYS); Callaghan, Akkaraju (BIOL)

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