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dc.contributor.advisorWillis, Jada L.
dc.contributor.authorThomas, Daphne
dc.date.accessioned2022-07-22T15:53:19Z
dc.date.available2022-07-22T15:53:19Z
dc.date.issued2022-05-19
dc.identifier.urihttps://repository.tcu.edu/handle/116099117/54287
dc.description.abstractABSTRACT Background: On average, Americans have some of the lowest omega-3 (N3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) profiles in the world. Athletes have an increased risk for N3 PUFA deficiency because of their increased energy requirements. As a result, N3 supplementation has shown promise as an ergogenic aid in athletes to help increase performance and enhance recovery. Objective: The purpose of this study was three-fold. We wanted to determine: 1) if supplementation with Enhanced Recovery  (ER), would increase N3 index (N3I), AA:EPA ratio, and N6:3ratio compared to a control (CON) ; 2) whether N3 status is related to sport and distance; 3) if supplementation with ER improves palatability, likeability, and compliance compared to CON. Methods: In this randomized controlled crossover study, two N3 supplements (20g protein/serving each; ER=1.6gN3/serving vs CON=1.66gN3/serving) in twenty-five (male=15; female=10) NCAA Division I track and cross-country athletes (NCAA DI TF-XC ) were tested. The entire study lasted 121 days. Participants completed a baseline visit, visits every two weeks (V#1-4) for the 45-day supplementation period and a 33-36-day washout period. After the washout period, participants switched supplementation groups where the same protocol ensued. At baseline, participants completed a food frequency questionnaire and recorded the frequency of consumption of N3-rich foods. At each visit, fasting blood samples were taken, and participants submitted supplement compliance forms. At the end of the study, visual analog scales and an exit survey were collected regarding each treatment. Results: Results show that N3 profile improves within six weeks of supplementation. The increase in N3 index, and the improvement of N6:3 and AA:EPA ratios were statistically significant. There were no significant changes between supplementation groups, but there were significant changes across time. Compliance was not affected by ER or CON, but males had increased compliance versus females [(males=90.0±17.0%; females=76.5±21.0%) p=0.040]. Likeability, ease of consumption, and preference favored the ER supplementation. Conclusion:  Supplementation, along with dietary consumption of N3-rich foods, increase N3 status in athletes. Consistent compliance with any supplement may depend on palatability, likeability, and ease of consumption. These factors can be determined by pre-season supplement taste tests and freedom of athletes to choose their own form of supplementation.
dc.titleIMPROVED PHYSIOLOGICAL MARKERS OF OMEGA-3 STATUS AND COMPLIANCE WITH OMEGA-3 SUPPLEMENTATION IN DIVISION I TRACK & FIELD AND CROSS-COUNTRY ATHLETES
etd.degree.departmentNutritional Sciences


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