|Abstract||"Horsesweat and Powdersmoke" chronicles the lineage and history of the 1st Texas Cavalry Regiment from its inception as a volunteer mounted regiment in February 1861 to April 1865 when the regiment officially disbanded. The antecedents of the 1st Texas Cavalry Regiment began with the First Regiment of Texas Mounted Rifles organized by Henry E. McCulloch in February 1861. In April 1861 the 1st Mounted Rifles became the first Texas unit mustered into Confederate service. The regiment served along the Texas frontier from the Red River to the Rio Grande until it disbanded in April 1862. Desiring to remain on active service, four companies from the mounted rifles and, with a company of German immigrants enlisted by Frank van der Stucken, formed Joseph Taylor's 8th Battalion Texas Cavalry. William O. Yager, McCulloch's adjutant, received a commission as major and organized the 3rd Battalion Texas Cavalry in late 1861. These two battalions protected the cotton trade routes running south from San Antonio and along the southern Texas coast. On August 10, 1862, a detachment of Taylor's Battalion fought in the "Battle of the Nueces" with German Unionists from near Fredericksburg. On May 2, 1863 Yager's and Taylor's Battalions, along with James P. Ware's Partisan Ranger Company, formed the 1st Texas Cavalry Regiment with Colonel Augustus Buchel as commander. During 1863 Buchel's Regiment served along the Texas coast from Brownsville to Sabine Pass in eastern Texas. In December 1863 Buchel's regiment formed a brigade of Hamilton P. Bee's Cavalry Division and assisted in repulsing an attempted Union invasion of southern Texas. From April 1864 to April 1865 the regiment served in Louisiana in Confederate General Richard Taylor's army contesting Union General Nathaniel P. Banks' abortive Red River Campaign. In addition to numerous skirmishes the regiment participated in major battles at Mansfield, Pleasant Hill, Monett's Ferry and Yellow Bayou. Buchel died of wounds received during a charge at Pleasant Hill and Yager replaced him as regimental commander. The 1st Texas Cavalry Regiment disbanded in late April 1865 at Wildcat Bluffs on the Trinity River near Dallas, Texas.