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dc.creatorLee, Bong Han
dc.creatorMcKinney, Ryan Lee
dc.creatorHasan, Md. Tanvir
dc.creatorNaumov, Anton V.
dc.date.accessioned2021-07-08T14:30:50Z
dc.date.available2021-07-08T14:30:50Z
dc.date.issued2021
dc.identifier.urihttps://doi.org/10.3390/ma14030616
dc.identifier.urihttps://repository.tcu.edu/handle/116099117/47483
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/14/3/616
dc.description.abstractNon-invasive temperature sensing is necessary to analyze biological processes occurring in the human body, including cellular enzyme activity, protein expression, and ion regulation. To probe temperature-sensitive processes at the nanoscale, novel luminescence nanothermometers are developed based on graphene quantum dots (GQDs) synthesized via top-down (RGQDs) and bottom-up (N-GQDs) approaches from reduced graphene oxide and glucosamine precursors, respectively. Because of their small 3-6 nm size, non-invasive optical sensitivity to temperature change, and high biocompatibility, GQDs enable biologically safe sub-cellular resolution sensing. Both GQD types exhibit temperature-sensitive yet photostable fluorescence in the visible and near-infrared for RGQDs, utilized as a sensing mechanism in this work. Distinctive linear and reversible fluorescence quenching by up to 19.3% is observed for the visible and near-infrared GQD emission in aqueous suspension from 25 degrees C to 49 degrees C. A more pronounced trend is observed with GQD nanothermometers internalized into the cytoplasm of HeLa cells as they are tested in vitro from 25 degrees C to 45 degrees C with over 40% quenching response. Our findings suggest that the temperature-dependent fluorescence quenching of bottom-up and top-down-synthesized GQDs studied in this work can serve as non-invasive reversible/photostable deterministic mechanisms for temperature sensing in microscopic sub-cellular biological environments.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherMDPI
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.sourceMaterials
dc.subjectgraphene quantum dotsen_US
dc.subjectnanothermometryen_US
dc.subjectfluorescenceen_US
dc.subjectin vitroen_US
dc.subjecttemperature sensingen_US
dc.titleGraphene Quantum Dots as Intracellular Imaging-Based Temperature Sensorsen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.rights.holder2021 by the authors
dc.rights.licenseCC BY 4.0
local.collegeCollege of Science and Engineering
local.departmentPhysics & Astronomy
local.personsALL (PHYS)


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