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dc.contributor.authorMorris, Alyssa
dc.date2021-12-18
dc.date.accessioned2022-01-14T16:40:45Z
dc.date.available2022-01-14T16:40:45Z
dc.date.issued2021
dc.identifier.urihttps://repository.tcu.edu/handle/116099117/49871
dc.description.abstractThe aim of the current study was to explore the effects of short-term goal-setting on enjoyment and session ratings of perceived exertion during a rowing exercise task. Because of the rising rates of obesity in the United States (Hales et al., 2020) and the effectiveness of physical activity in managing a healthy weight and enhancing quality of life (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2018), the question of how to increase physical activity levels of individuals is of high importance. If greater adherence to exercise programs is effective in weight management and positive physical and mental health outcomes (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2018), and enhanced enjoyment is associated with greater exercise adherence (Hartmann et al., 2015), understanding how to increase enjoyment during exercise could help individuals to enhance physical activity levels and health. Short-term goal-setting and its effects on exercise enjoyment has not yet received adequate attention in the literature, and the current study set out to fill in this gap by testing the effects of short-term goal-setting on ratings of enjoyment using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) and session ratings of perceived exertion using the Borg Scale during an exercise bout on the Aviron Tough Series Rower. Twenty-five physically active individuals were recruited for participation in this study and completed two exercise sessions on separate occasions under a repeated measures design. Each participant completed one session under the experimental condition and one session under the control condition. The experimental session included use of a pacer on the rower screen during two separate rowing bouts, which served as a goal-setting simulation. The control session did not use this pacer during the two separate rowing bouts. In both conditions during the break between the first and second bout, participants set a goal for the distance that they would row in the second bout. At the end of each session, participants completed the PACES, Borg Scale, and Commitment Check. Paired sample t-tests were analyzed for PACES, sRPE, distance, and heart rate (HR). Significance between conditions were analyzed at a p value of < .05. Results showed non-significant differences between conditions for enjoyment, sRPE, HR, and distance rowed. There was, however, a significant difference found for distance rowed from exercise bout one to exercise bout two in both the experimental condition and the control condition. While the use of the pacer as a short-term goal-setting intervention was not effective in significantly increasing enjoyment, the use of self-chosen short-term goals as set during the break should be studied further in future research to determine their effectiveness in enhancing performance and enjoyment in exercise. It should also be considered motivating for exercisers and practitioners that intricate pacers or goal-setting tools may not be necessary for enhancing exercise outcomes, and that instead simply reflecting on past performance and setting self-chosen goals may be adequate for improving exercise effectiveness.
dc.subjectgoal setting
dc.subjectenjoyment
dc.subjectratings of perceived exertion
dc.subjectexercise
dc.titleEffect of Short-Term Goal-Setting on Enjoyment and Ratings of Perceived Exertion during a Rowing Task
etd.degree.departmentKinesiology
local.collegeHarris College of Nursing and Health Sciences
local.collegeJohn V. Roach Honors College
local.departmentKinesiology


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