Blockchain is a technology that ensures data security by verifying database of records established in a decentralized and distributed network. Blockchain-based approaches have been applied to secure data in the fields of the Internet of Things, software engineering, healthcare systems, financial services, and smart power grids. However, the security of the blockchain system is still a major concern. We took the initiative to present a systematic study which sheds light on what defensive strategies are used to secure the blockchain system effectively. Specifically, we focus on blockchain data security that aims to mitigate the two data consistency attacks: double-spend attack and selfish mining attack. We employed the systematic approach to analyze a total of 40 selected studies using the proposed taxonomy of defensive strategies: monitoring, alert forwarding, alert broadcasting, inform, detection, and conceptual research design. It presents a comparison framework for existing and future research on blockchain security. Finally, some recommendations are proposed for blockchain researchers and developers.