BODIPY Dyes as Probes and Sensors to Study Amyloid-ß-Related Processes
Dzyuba, Sergei V.
Amyloid formation plays a major role in a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid-ß peptides (Aß) are one of the primary markers associated with this pathology. Aß aggregates exhibit a diverse range of morphologies with distinct pathological activities. Recognition of the Aß aggregates by using small molecule-based probes and sensors should not only enhance understanding of the underlying mechanisms of amyloid formation, but also facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies to interfere with amyloid neurotoxicity. BODIPY (boron dipyrrin) dyes are among the most versatile small molecule fluorophores. BODIPY scaffolds could be functionalized to tune their photophysical properties to the desired ranges as well as to adapt these dyes to various types of conditions and environments. Thus, BODIPY dyes could be viewed as unique platforms for the design of probes and sensors that are capable of detecting and tracking structural changes of various Aß aggregates. This review summarizes currently available examples of BODIPY dyes that have been used to investigate conformational changes of Aß peptides, self-assembly processes of Aß, as well as Aß interactions with various molecules.